Abstract class for writing to character streams. The only methods that a
subclass must implement are write(char, int, int), flush(), and close().
Most subclasses, however, will override some of the methods defined here in
order to provide higher efficiency, additional functionality, or both.
The object used to synchronize operations on this stream. For
efficiency, a character-stream object may use an object other than
itself to protect critical sections. A subclass should therefore use
the object in this field rather than this or a synchronized
Create a new character-stream writer whose critical sections will
synchronize on the writer itself.
Flush the stream. If the stream has saved any characters from the
various write() methods in a buffer, write them immediately to their
intended destination. Then, if that destination is another character or
byte stream, flush it. Thus one flush() invocation will flush all the
buffers in a chain of Writers and OutputStreams.
Close the stream, flushing it first. Once a stream has been closed,
further write() or flush() invocations will cause an IOException to be
thrown. Closing a previously-closed stream, however, has no effect.
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