Immutable, arbitrary-precision signed decimal numbers. A BigDecimal
consists of an arbitrary precision integer value and a non-negative
integer scale, which represents the number of decimal digits to the
right of the decimal point. (The number represented by the BigDecimal
is intVal/10**scale.) BigDecimals provide operations for basic arithmetic,
scale manipulation, comparison, format conversion and hashing.
The BigDecimal class gives its user complete control over rounding
behavior, forcing the user to explicitly specify a rounding behavior for
operations capable of discarding precision (divide and setScale). Eight
rounding modes are provided for this purpose.
Two types of operations are provided for manipulating the scale of a
BigDecimal: scaling/rounding operations and decimal point motion operations.
Scaling/Rounding operations (SetScale) return a BigDecimal whose value is
approximately (or exactly) equal to that of the operand, but whose scale is
the specified value; that is, they increase or decrease the precision
of the number with minimal effect on its value. Decimal point motion
operations (movePointLeft and movePointRight) return a BigDecimal created
from the operand by moving the decimal point a specified distance in the
specified direction; that is, they change a number's value without affecting
its precision.
Constructs a BigDecimal from a string containing an optional minus
sign followed by a sequence of zero or more decimal digits, optionally
followed by a fraction, which consists of a decimal point followed by
zero or more decimal digits.
Returns a BigDecimal whose scale is the specified value, and whose
integer value is determined by multiplying or dividing this BigDecimal's
integer value by the appropriate power of ten to maintain the overall
value.
Returns a BigDecimal with a value of (val/10**scale).
ROUND_UP
public static final int ROUND_UP
Always increment the digit prior to a non-zero discarded fraction.
Note that this rounding mode never decreases the magnitude.
(Rounds away from zero.)
ROUND_DOWN
public static final int ROUND_DOWN
Never increment the digit prior to a discarded fraction (i.e.,
truncate). Note that this rounding mode never increases the magnitude.
(Rounds towards zero.)
ROUND_CEILING
public static final int ROUND_CEILING
If the BigDecimal is positive, behave as for ROUND_UP; if negative,
behave as for ROUND_DOWN. Note that this rounding mode never decreases
the value. (Rounds towards positive infinity.)
ROUND_FLOOR
public static final int ROUND_FLOOR
If the BigDecimal is positive, behave as for ROUND_DOWN; if negative
behave as for ROUND_UP. Note that this rounding mode never increases
the value. (Rounds towards negative infinity.)
ROUND_HALF_UP
public static final int ROUND_HALF_UP
Behave as for ROUND_UP if the discarded fraction is >= .5; otherwise,
behave as for ROUND_DOWN. (Rounds towards "nearest neighbor" unless
both neighbors are equidistant, in which case rounds up.)
ROUND_HALF_DOWN
public static final int ROUND_HALF_DOWN
Behave as for ROUND_UP if the discarded fraction is > .5; otherwise,
behave as for ROUND_DOWN. (Rounds towards "nearest neighbor" unless
both neighbors are equidistant, in which case rounds down.)
ROUND_HALF_EVEN
public static final int ROUND_HALF_EVEN
Behave as for ROUND_HALF_UP if the digit to the left of the discarded
fraction is odd; behave as for ROUND_HALF_DOWN if it's even. (Rounds
towards the "nearest neighbor" unless both neighbors are equidistant,
in which case, rounds towards the even neighbor.)
ROUND_UNNECESSARY
public static final int ROUND_UNNECESSARY
This "pseudo-rounding-mode" is actually an assertion that the requested
operation has an exact result, hence no rounding is necessary. If this
rounding mode is specified on an operation that yields an inexact result,
an arithmetic exception is thrown.
Constructs a BigDecimal from a string containing an optional minus
sign followed by a sequence of zero or more decimal digits, optionally
followed by a fraction, which consists of a decimal point followed by
zero or more decimal digits. The string must contain at least one
digit in the integer or fractional part. The scale of the resulting
BigDecimal will be the number of digits to the right of the decimal
point in the string, or 0 if the string contains no decimal point.
The character-to-digit mapping is provided by Character.digit.
Any extraneous characters (including whitespace) will result in
a NumberFormatException.
Translates a double into a BigDecimal. The scale of the BigDecimal
is the smallest value such that (10**scale * val) is an integer.
A double whose value is -infinity, +infinity or NaN will result in a
NumberFormatException.
Translates a BigInteger and a scale into a BigDecimal. The value
of the BigDecimal is (BigInteger/10**scale). A negative scale
will result in a NumberFormatException.
Returns a BigDecimal with a value of (val/10**scale). This factory
is provided in preference to a (long) constructor because it allows
for reuse of frequently used BigDecimals (like 0 and 1), obviating
the need for exported constants. A negative scale will result in a
NumberFormatException.
Returns a BigDecimal with the given value and a scale of zero.
This factory is provided in preference to a (long) constructor
because it allows for reuse of frequently used BigDecimals (like
0 and 1), obviating the need for exported constants.
Returns a BigDecimal whose value is (this / val), and whose scale
is as specified. If rounding must be performed to generate a
result with the given scale, the specified rounding mode is
applied. Throws an ArithmeticException if val == 0, scale < 0,
or the rounding mode is ROUND_UNNECESSARY and the specified scale
is insufficient to represent the result of the division exactly.
Throws an IllegalArgumentException if roundingMode does not
represent a valid rounding mode.
Returns a BigDecimal whose value is (this / val), and whose scale
is this.scale(). If rounding must be performed to generate a
result with the given scale, the specified rounding mode is
applied. Throws an ArithmeticException if val == 0. Throws
an IllegalArgumentException if roundingMode does not represent a
valid rounding mode.
Returns a BigDecimal whose scale is the specified value, and whose
integer value is determined by multiplying or dividing this BigDecimal's
integer value by the appropriate power of ten to maintain the overall
value. If the scale is reduced by the operation, the integer value
must be divided (rather than multiplied), and precision may be lost;
in this case, the specified rounding mode is applied to the division.
Throws an ArithmeticException if scale is negative, or the rounding
mode is ROUND_UNNECESSARY and it is impossible to perform the
specified scaling operation without loss of precision. Throws an
IllegalArgumentException if roundingMode does not represent a valid
rounding mode.
Returns a BigDecimal whose scale is the specified value, and whose
value is exactly equal to this number's. Throws an ArithmeticException
if this is not possible. This call is typically used to increase
the scale, in which case it is guaranteed that there exists a BigDecimal
of the specified scale and the correct value. The call can also be used
to reduce the scale if the caller knows that the number has sufficiently
many zeros at the end of its fractional part (i.e., factors of ten in
its integer value) to allow for the rescaling without loss of precision.
Note that this call returns the same result as the two argument version
of setScale, but saves the caller the trouble of specifying a rounding
mode in cases where it is irrelevant.
Returns a BigDecimal which is equivalent to this one with the decimal
point moved n places to the left. If n is non-negative, the call merely
adds n to the scale. If n is negative, the call is equivalent to
movePointRight(-n). (The BigDecimal returned by this call has value
(this * 10**-n) and scale MAX(this.scale()+n, 0).)
Moves the decimal point the specified number of places to the right.
If this number's scale is >= n, the call merely subtracts n from the
scale; otherwise, it sets the scale to zero, and multiplies the integer
value by 10 ** (n - this.scale). If n is negative, the call is
equivalent to movePointLeft(-n). (The BigDecimal returned by this call
has value (this * 10**n) and scale MAX(this.scale()-n, 0).)
Returns -1, 0 or 1 as this number is less than, equal to, or greater
than val. Two BigDecimals that are equal in value but have a
different scale (e.g., 2.0, 2.00) are considered equal by this method.
This method is provided in preference to individual methods for each
of the six boolean comparison operators (<, ==, >, >=, !=, <=). The
suggested idiom for performing these comparisons is: (x.compareTo(y)
0), where is one of the six comparison operators.
Returns true iff x is a BigDecimal whose value is equal to this number.
This method is provided so that BigDecimals can be used as hash keys.
Unlike compareTo, this method considers two BigDecimals equal only
if they are equal in value and scale.
Returns the BigDecimal whose value is the lesser of this and val.
If the values are equal (as defined by the compareTo operator),
either may be returned.
Returns the BigDecimal whose value is the greater of this and val.
If the values are equal (as defined by the compareTo operator),
either may be returned.
Computes a hash code for this object. Note that two BigDecimals
that are numerically equal but differ in scale (e.g., 2.0, 2.00) will
not generally have the same hash code.
Returns the string representation of this number. The digit-to-
character mapping provided by Character.forDigit is used. The minus
sign and decimal point are used to indicate sign and scale. (This
representation is compatible with the (String, int) constructor.)
Converts this number to a BigInteger. Standard narrowing primitive
conversion as per The Java Language Specification. In particular,
note that any fractional part of this number will be truncated.
Converts this number to an int. Standard narrowing primitive conversion
as per The Java Language Specification. In particular, note that any
fractional part of this number will be truncated.
Converts this number to a long. Standard narrowing primitive conversion
as per The Java Language Specification. In particular, note that any
fractional part of this number will be truncated.
Converts this number to a float. Similar to the double-to-float
narrowing primitive conversion defined in The Java Language
Specification: if the number has too great a magnitude to represent
as a float, it will be converted to infinity or negative infinity,
as appropriate.
Converts the number to a double. Similar to the double-to-float
narrowing primitive conversion defined in The Java Language
Specification: if the number has too great a magnitude to represent
as a double, it will be converted to infinity or negative infinity,
as appropriate.
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