JavaTM 2 Platform
Std. Ed. v1.3.1

java.lang
Class Math

java.lang.Object
  |
  +--java.lang.Math

public final class Math
extends Object

The class Math contains methods for performing basic numeric operations such as the elementary exponential, logarithm, square root, and trigonometric functions.

Unlike some of the numeric functions of class StrictMath, all implementations of the equivalent functions of class Math are not defined to return the bit-for-bit same results. This relaxation permits better-performing implementations where strict reproducibility is not required.

By default many of the Math functions simply delegate to the equivalent functions in StrictMath for their implementations. Code generators are encouraged to use platform-specific native libraries or microprocessor instructions, where available, to provide higher-performance implementations of Math functions. Such higher-performance implementations still must conform to the specification for Math.

Since:
JDK1.0

Field Summary
static double E
          The double value that is closer than any other to e, the base of the natural logarithms.
static double PI
          The double value that is closer than any other to pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.
 
Method Summary
static double abs(double a)
          Returns the absolute value of a double value.
static float abs(float a)
          Returns the absolute value of a float value.
static int abs(int a)
          Returns the absolute value of an int value.
static long abs(long a)
          Returns the absolute value of a long value.
static double acos(double a)
          Returns the arc cosine of an angle, in the range of 0.0 through pi.
static double asin(double a)
          Returns the arc sine of an angle, in the range of -pi/2 through pi/2.
static double atan(double a)
          Returns the arc tangent of an angle, in the range of -pi/2 through pi/2.
static double atan2(double a, double b)
          Converts rectangular coordinates (ba) to polar (r, theta).
static double ceil(double a)
          Returns the smallest (closest to negative infinity) double value that is not less than the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.
static double cos(double a)
          Returns the trigonometric cosine of an angle.
static double exp(double a)
          Returns the exponential number e (i.e., 2.718...) raised to the power of a double value.
static double floor(double a)
          Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) double value that is not greater than the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.
static double IEEEremainder(double f1, double f2)
          Computes the remainder operation on two arguments as prescribed by the IEEE 754 standard.
static double log(double a)
          Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of a double value.
static double max(double a, double b)
          Returns the greater of two double values.
static float max(float a, float b)
          Returns the greater of two float values.
static int max(int a, int b)
          Returns the greater of two int values.
static long max(long a, long b)
          Returns the greater of two long values.
static double min(double a, double b)
          Returns the smaller of two double values.
static float min(float a, float b)
          Returns the smaller of two float values.
static int min(int a, int b)
          Returns the smaller of two int values.
static long min(long a, long b)
          Returns the smaller of two long values.
static double pow(double a, double b)
          Returns of value of the first argument raised to the power of the second argument.
static double random()
          Returns a double value with a positive sign, greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0.
static double rint(double a)
          Returns the double value that is closest in value to a and is equal to a mathematical integer.
static long round(double a)
          Returns the closest long to the argument.
static int round(float a)
          Returns the closest int to the argument.
static double sin(double a)
          Returns the trigonometric sine of an angle.
static double sqrt(double a)
          Returns the correctly rounded positive square root of a double value.
static double tan(double a)
          Returns the trigonometric tangent of an angle.
static double toDegrees(double angrad)
          Converts an angle measured in radians to the equivalent angle measured in degrees.
static double toRadians(double angdeg)
          Converts an angle measured in degrees to the equivalent angle measured in radians.
 
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait
 

Field Detail

E

public static final double E
The double value that is closer than any other to e, the base of the natural logarithms.

PI

public static final double PI
The double value that is closer than any other to pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.
Method Detail

sin

public static double sin(double a)
Returns the trigonometric sine of an angle. Special cases:

A result must be within 1 ulp of the correctly rounded result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
a - an angle, in radians.
Returns:
the sine of the argument.

cos

public static double cos(double a)
Returns the trigonometric cosine of an angle. Special case:

A result must be within 1 ulp of the correctly rounded result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
a - an angle, in radians.
Returns:
the cosine of the argument.

tan

public static double tan(double a)
Returns the trigonometric tangent of an angle. Special cases:

A result must be within 1 ulp of the correctly rounded result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
a - an angle, in radians.
Returns:
the tangent of the argument.

asin

public static double asin(double a)
Returns the arc sine of an angle, in the range of -pi/2 through pi/2. Special cases:

A result must be within 1 ulp of the correctly rounded result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
a - the double value whose arc sine is to be returned.
Returns:
the arc sine of the argument.

acos

public static double acos(double a)
Returns the arc cosine of an angle, in the range of 0.0 through pi. Special case:

A result must be within 1 ulp of the correctly rounded result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
a - the double value whose arc cosine is to be returned.
Returns:
the arc cosine of the argument.

atan

public static double atan(double a)
Returns the arc tangent of an angle, in the range of -pi/2 through pi/2. Special cases:

A result must be within 1 ulp of the correctly rounded result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
a - the double value whose arc tangent is to be returned.
Returns:
the arc tangent of the argument.

toRadians

public static double toRadians(double angdeg)
Converts an angle measured in degrees to the equivalent angle measured in radians.
Parameters:
angdeg - an angle, in degrees
Returns:
the measurement of the angle angdeg in radians.
Since:
1.2

toDegrees

public static double toDegrees(double angrad)
Converts an angle measured in radians to the equivalent angle measured in degrees.
Parameters:
angrad - an angle, in radians
Returns:
the measurement of the angle angrad in degrees.
Since:
1.2

exp

public static double exp(double a)
Returns the exponential number e (i.e., 2.718...) raised to the power of a double value. Special cases:

A result must be within 1 ulp of the correctly rounded result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
a - a double value.
Returns:
the value ea, where e is the base of the natural logarithms.

log

public static double log(double a)
Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of a double value. Special cases:

A result must be within 1 ulp of the correctly rounded result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
a - a number greater than 0.0.
Returns:
the value ln a, the natural logarithm of a.

sqrt

public static double sqrt(double a)
Returns the correctly rounded positive square root of a double value. Special cases: Otherwise, the result is the double value closest to the true mathetmatical square root of the argument value.
Parameters:
a - a double value.
Returns:
the positive square root of a. If the argument is NaN or less than zero, the result is NaN.

IEEEremainder

public static double IEEEremainder(double f1,
                                   double f2)
Computes the remainder operation on two arguments as prescribed by the IEEE 754 standard. The remainder value is mathematically equal to f1 - f2 × n, where n is the mathematical integer closest to the exact mathematical value of the quotient f1/f2, and if two mathematical integers are equally close to f1/f2, then n is the integer that is even. If the remainder is zero, its sign is the same as the sign of the first argument. Special cases:
Parameters:
f1 - the dividend.
f2 - the divisor.
Returns:
the remainder when f1 is divided by f2.

ceil

public static double ceil(double a)
Returns the smallest (closest to negative infinity) double value that is not less than the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. Special cases: Note that the value of Math.ceil(x) is exactly the value of -Math.floor(-x).
Parameters:
a - a double value.
Returns:
the smallest (closest to negative infinity) double value that is not less than the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.

floor

public static double floor(double a)
Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) double value that is not greater than the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. Special cases:
Parameters:
a - a double value.
Returns:
the largest (closest to positive infinity) double value that is not greater than the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.

rint

public static double rint(double a)
Returns the double value that is closest in value to a and is equal to a mathematical integer. If two double values that are mathematical integers are equally close to the value of the argument, the result is the integer value that is even. Special cases:
Parameters:
a - a double value.
Returns:
the closest double value to a that is equal to a mathematical integer.

atan2

public static double atan2(double a,
                           double b)
Converts rectangular coordinates (ba) to polar (r, theta). This method computes the phase theta by computing an arc tangent of a/b in the range of -pi to pi. Special cases:

A result must be within 2 ulps of the correctly rounded result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
a - a double value.
b - a double value.
Returns:
the theta component of the point (rtheta) in polar coordinates that corresponds to the point (ba) in Cartesian coordinates.

pow

public static double pow(double a,
                         double b)
Returns of value of the first argument raised to the power of the second argument. Special cases:

(In the foregoing descriptions, a floating-point value is considered to be an integer if and only if it is a fixed point of the method ceil or, which is the same thing, a fixed point of the method floor. A value is a fixed point of a one-argument method if and only if the result of applying the method to the value is equal to the value.)

A result must be within 1 ulp of the correctly rounded result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
a - a double value.
b - a double value.
Returns:
the value ab.

round

public static int round(float a)
Returns the closest int to the argument. The result is rounded to an integer by adding 1/2, taking the floor of the result, and casting the result to type int. In other words, the result is equal to the value of the expression:

(int)Math.floor(a + 0.5f)

Special cases:

Parameters:
a - a float value.
Returns:
the value of the argument rounded to the nearest int value.
See Also:
Integer.MAX_VALUE, Integer.MIN_VALUE

round

public static long round(double a)
Returns the closest long to the argument. The result is rounded to an integer by adding 1/2, taking the floor of the result, and casting the result to type long. In other words, the result is equal to the value of the expression:

(long)Math.floor(a + 0.5d)

Special cases:

Parameters:
a - a double value.
Returns:
the value of the argument rounded to the nearest long value.
See Also:
Long.MAX_VALUE, Long.MIN_VALUE

random

public static double random()
Returns a double value with a positive sign, greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0. Returned values are chosen pseudorandomly with (approximately) uniform distribution from that range.

When this method is first called, it creates a single new pseudorandom-number generator, exactly as if by the expression

new java.util.Random
This new pseudorandom-number generator is used thereafter for all calls to this method and is used nowhere else.

This method is properly synchronized to allow correct use by more than one thread. However, if many threads need to generate pseudorandom numbers at a great rate, it may reduce contention for each thread to have its own pseudorandom-number generator.

Returns:
a pseudorandom double greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0.
See Also:
Random.nextDouble()

abs

public static int abs(int a)
Returns the absolute value of an int value. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned.

Note that if the argument is equal to the value of Integer.MIN_VALUE, the most negative representable int value, the result is that same value, which is negative.

Parameters:
a - an int value.
Returns:
the absolute value of the argument.
See Also:
Integer.MIN_VALUE

abs

public static long abs(long a)
Returns the absolute value of a long value. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned.

Note that if the argument is equal to the value of Long.MIN_VALUE, the most negative representable long value, the result is that same value, which is negative.

Parameters:
a - a long value.
Returns:
the absolute value of the argument.
See Also:
Long.MIN_VALUE

abs

public static float abs(float a)
Returns the absolute value of a float value. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned. Special cases: In other words, the result is equal to the value of the expression:

Float.intBitsToFloat(0x7fffffff & Float.floatToIntBits(a))
Parameters:
a - a float value.
Returns:
the absolute value of the argument.

abs

public static double abs(double a)
Returns the absolute value of a double value. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned. Special cases: In other words, the result is equal to the value of the expression:

Double.longBitsToDouble((Double.doubleToLongBits(a)<<1)>>>1)
Parameters:
a - a double value.
Returns:
the absolute value of the argument.

max

public static int max(int a,
                      int b)
Returns the greater of two int values. That is, the result is the argument closer to the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.
Parameters:
a - an int value.
b - an int value.
Returns:
the larger of a and b.
See Also:
Long.MAX_VALUE

max

public static long max(long a,
                       long b)
Returns the greater of two long values. That is, the result is the argument closer to the value of Long.MAX_VALUE. If the argumens have the same value, the result is that same value.
Parameters:
a - a long value.
b - a long value.
Returns:
the larger of a and b.
See Also:
Long.MAX_VALUE

max

public static float max(float a,
                        float b)
Returns the greater of two float values. That is, the result is the argument closer to positive infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other negative zero, the result is positive zero.
Parameters:
a - a float value.
b - a float value.
Returns:
the larger of a and b.

max

public static double max(double a,
                         double b)
Returns the greater of two double values. That is, the result is the argument closer to positive infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other negative zero, the result is positive zero.
Parameters:
a - a double value.
b - a double value.
Returns:
the larger of a and b.

min

public static int min(int a,
                      int b)
Returns the smaller of two int values. That is, the result the argument closer to the value of Integer.MIN_VALUE. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.
Parameters:
a - an int value.
b - an int value.
Returns:
the smaller of a and b.
See Also:
Long.MIN_VALUE

min

public static long min(long a,
                       long b)
Returns the smaller of two long values. That is, the result is the argument closer to the value of Long.MIN_VALUE. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.
Parameters:
a - a long value.
b - a long value.
Returns:
the smaller of a and b.
See Also:
Long.MIN_VALUE

min

public static float min(float a,
                        float b)
Returns the smaller of two float values. That is, the result is the value closer to negative infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other is negative zero, the result is negative zero.
Parameters:
a - a float value.
b - a float value.
Returns:
the smaller of a and b.

min

public static double min(double a,
                         double b)
Returns the smaller of two double values. That is, the result is the value closer to negative infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other is negative zero, the result is negative zero.
Parameters:
a - a double value.
b - a double value.
Returns:
the smaller of a and b.

JavaTM 2 Platform
Std. Ed. v1.3.1

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