JavaTM 2 Platform
Std. Ed. v1.3.1

java.util
Class LinkedList

java.lang.Object
  |
  +--java.util.AbstractCollection
        |
        +--java.util.AbstractList
              |
              +--java.util.AbstractSequentialList
                    |
                    +--java.util.LinkedList
All Implemented Interfaces:
Cloneable, Collection, List, Serializable

public class LinkedList
extends AbstractSequentialList
implements List, Cloneable, Serializable

Linked list implementation of the List interface. Implements all optional list operations, and permits all elements (including null). In addition to implementing the List interface, the LinkedList class provides uniformly named methods to get, remove and insert an element at the beginning and end of the list. These operations allow linked lists to be used as a stack, queue, or double-ended queue (deque).

All of the stack/queue/deque operations could be easily recast in terms of the standard list operations. They're included here primarily for convenience, though they may run slightly faster than the equivalent List operations.

All of the operations perform as could be expected for a doubly-linked list. Operations that index into the list will traverse the list from the begining or the end, whichever is closer to the specified index.

Note that this implementation is not synchronized. If multiple threads access a list concurrently, and at least one of the threads modifies the list structurally, it must be synchronized externally. (A structural modification is any operation that adds or deletes one or more elements; merely setting the value of an element is not a structural modification.) This is typically accomplished by synchronizing on some object that naturally encapsulates the list. If no such object exists, the list should be "wrapped" using the Collections.synchronizedList method. This is best done at creation time, to prevent accidental unsynchronized access to the list:

     List list = Collections.synchronizedList(new LinkedList(...));
 

The iterators returned by the this class's iterator and listIterator methods are fail-fast: if the list is structurally modified at any time after the iterator is created, in any way except through the Iterator's own remove or add methods, the iterator will throw a ConcurrentModificationException. Thus, in the face of concurrent modification, the iterator fails quickly and cleanly, rather than risking arbitrary, non-deterministic behavior at an undetermined time in the future.

Since:
1.2
See Also:
List, ArrayList, Vector, Collections.synchronizedList(List), Serialized Form

Fields inherited from class java.util.AbstractList
modCount
 
Constructor Summary
LinkedList()
          Constructs an empty list.
LinkedList(Collection c)
          Constructs a list containing the elements of the specified collection, in the order they are returned by the collection's iterator.
 
Method Summary
 void add(int index, Object element)
          Inserts the specified element at the specified position in this list.
 boolean add(Object o)
          Appends the specified element to the end of this list.
 boolean addAll(Collection c)
          Appends all of the elements in the specified collection to the end of this list, in the order that they are returned by the specified collection's iterator.
 boolean addAll(int index, Collection c)
          Inserts all of the elements in the specified collection into this list, starting at the specified position.
 void addFirst(Object o)
          Inserts the given element at the beginning of this list.
 void addLast(Object o)
          Appends the given element to the end of this list.
 void clear()
          Removes all of the elements from this list.
 Object clone()
          Returns a shallow copy of this LinkedList.
 boolean contains(Object o)
          Returns true if this list contains the specified element.
 Object get(int index)
          Returns the element at the specified position in this list.
 Object getFirst()
          Returns the first element in this list.
 Object getLast()
          Returns the last element in this list.
 int indexOf(Object o)
          Returns the index in this list of the first occurrence of the specified element, or -1 if the List does not contain this element.
 int lastIndexOf(Object o)
          Returns the index in this list of the last occurrence of the specified element, or -1 if the list does not contain this element.
 ListIterator listIterator(int index)
          Returns a list-iterator of the elements in this list (in proper sequence), starting at the specified position in the list.
 Object remove(int index)
          Removes the element at the specified position in this list.
 boolean remove(Object o)
          Removes the first occurrence of the specified element in this list.
 Object removeFirst()
          Removes and returns the first element from this list.
 Object removeLast()
          Removes and returns the last element from this list.
 Object set(int index, Object element)
          Replaces the element at the specified position in this list with the specified element.
 int size()
          Returns the number of elements in this list.
 Object[] toArray()
          Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list in the correct order.
 Object[] toArray(Object[] a)
          Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list in the correct order.
 
Methods inherited from class java.util.AbstractSequentialList
iterator
 
Methods inherited from class java.util.AbstractList
equals, hashCode, listIterator, removeRange, subList
 
Methods inherited from class java.util.AbstractCollection
containsAll, isEmpty, removeAll, retainAll, toString
 
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
finalize, getClass, notify, notifyAll, wait, wait, wait
 
Methods inherited from interface java.util.List
containsAll, equals, hashCode, isEmpty, iterator, listIterator, removeAll, retainAll, subList
 

Constructor Detail

LinkedList

public LinkedList()
Constructs an empty list.

LinkedList

public LinkedList(Collection c)
Constructs a list containing the elements of the specified collection, in the order they are returned by the collection's iterator.
Parameters:
c - the collection whose elements are to be placed into this list.
Method Detail

getFirst

public Object getFirst()
Returns the first element in this list.
Returns:
the first element in this list.

getLast

public Object getLast()
Returns the last element in this list.
Returns:
the last element in this list.
Throws:
NoSuchElementException - if this list is empty.

removeFirst

public Object removeFirst()
Removes and returns the first element from this list.
Returns:
the first element from this list.
Throws:
NoSuchElementException - if this list is empty.

removeLast

public Object removeLast()
Removes and returns the last element from this list.
Returns:
the last element from this list.
Throws:
NoSuchElementException - if this list is empty.

addFirst

public void addFirst(Object o)
Inserts the given element at the beginning of this list.
Parameters:
o - the element to be inserted at the beginning of this list.

addLast

public void addLast(Object o)
Appends the given element to the end of this list. (Identical in function to the add method; included only for consistency.)
Parameters:
o - the element to be inserted at the end of this list.

contains

public boolean contains(Object o)
Returns true if this list contains the specified element. More formally, returns true if and only if this list contains at least one element e such that (o==null ? e==null : o.equals(e)).
Specified by:
contains in interface List
Overrides:
contains in class AbstractCollection
Parameters:
o - element whose presence in this list is to be tested.
Returns:
true if this list contains the specified element.

size

public int size()
Returns the number of elements in this list.
Specified by:
size in interface List
Overrides:
size in class AbstractCollection
Returns:
the number of elements in this list.

add

public boolean add(Object o)
Appends the specified element to the end of this list.
Specified by:
add in interface List
Overrides:
add in class AbstractList
Parameters:
o - element to be appended to this list.
Returns:
true (as per the general contract of Collection.add).

remove

public boolean remove(Object o)
Removes the first occurrence of the specified element in this list. If the list does not contain the element, it is unchanged. More formally, removes the element with the lowest index i such that (o==null ? get(i)==null : o.equals(get(i))) (if such an element exists).
Specified by:
remove in interface List
Overrides:
remove in class AbstractCollection
Parameters:
o - element to be removed from this list, if present.
Returns:
true if the list contained the specified element.

addAll

public boolean addAll(Collection c)
Appends all of the elements in the specified collection to the end of this list, in the order that they are returned by the specified collection's iterator. The behavior of this operation is undefined if the specified collection is modified while the operation is in progress. (This implies that the behavior of this call is undefined if the specified Collection is this list, and this list is nonempty.)
Specified by:
addAll in interface List
Overrides:
addAll in class AbstractCollection
Parameters:
c - the elements to be inserted into this list.
Throws:
IndexOutOfBoundsException - if the specified index is out of range (index < 0 || index > size()).

addAll

public boolean addAll(int index,
                      Collection c)
Inserts all of the elements in the specified collection into this list, starting at the specified position. Shifts the element currently at that position (if any) and any subsequent elements to the right (increases their indices). The new elements will appear in the list in the order that they are returned by the specified collection's iterator.
Specified by:
addAll in interface List
Overrides:
addAll in class AbstractSequentialList
Parameters:
index - index at which to insert first element from the specified collection.
c - elements to be inserted into this list.
Throws:
IndexOutOfBoundsException - if the specified index is out of range (index < 0 || index > size()).

clear

public void clear()
Removes all of the elements from this list.
Specified by:
clear in interface List
Overrides:
clear in class AbstractList
Following copied from interface: java.util.List
Throws:
UnsupportedOperationException - if the clear method is not supported by this list.

get

public Object get(int index)
Returns the element at the specified position in this list.
Specified by:
get in interface List
Overrides:
get in class AbstractSequentialList
Parameters:
index - index of element to return.
Returns:
the element at the specified position in this list.
Throws:
IndexOutOfBoundsException - if the specified index is is out of range (index < 0 || index >= size()).

set

public Object set(int index,
                  Object element)
Replaces the element at the specified position in this list with the specified element.
Specified by:
set in interface List
Overrides:
set in class AbstractSequentialList
Parameters:
index - index of element to replace.
element - element to be stored at the specified position.
Returns:
the element previously at the specified position.
Throws:
IndexOutOfBoundsException - if the specified index is out of range (index < 0 || index >= size()).

add

public void add(int index,
                Object element)
Inserts the specified element at the specified position in this list. Shifts the element currently at that position (if any) and any subsequent elements to the right (adds one to their indices).
Specified by:
add in interface List
Overrides:
add in class AbstractSequentialList
Parameters:
index - index at which the specified element is to be inserted.
element - element to be inserted.
Throws:
IndexOutOfBoundsException - if the specified index is out of range (index < 0 || index > size()).

remove

public Object remove(int index)
Removes the element at the specified position in this list. Shifts any subsequent elements to the left (subtracts one from their indices). Returns the element that was removed from the list.
Specified by:
remove in interface List
Overrides:
remove in class AbstractSequentialList
Parameters:
index - the index of the element to removed.
Returns:
the element previously at the specified position.
Throws:
IndexOutOfBoundsException - if the specified index is out of range (index < 0 || index >= size()).

indexOf

public int indexOf(Object o)
Returns the index in this list of the first occurrence of the specified element, or -1 if the List does not contain this element. More formally, returns the lowest index i such that (o==null ? get(i)==null : o.equals(get(i))), or -1 if there is no such index.
Specified by:
indexOf in interface List
Overrides:
indexOf in class AbstractList
Parameters:
o - element to search for.
Returns:
the index in this list of the first occurrence of the specified element, or -1 if the list does not contain this element.

lastIndexOf

public int lastIndexOf(Object o)
Returns the index in this list of the last occurrence of the specified element, or -1 if the list does not contain this element. More formally, returns the highest index i such that (o==null ? get(i)==null : o.equals(get(i))), or -1 if there is no such index.
Specified by:
lastIndexOf in interface List
Overrides:
lastIndexOf in class AbstractList
Parameters:
o - element to search for.
Returns:
the index in this list of the last occurrence of the specified element, or -1 if the list does not contain this element.

listIterator

public ListIterator listIterator(int index)
Returns a list-iterator of the elements in this list (in proper sequence), starting at the specified position in the list. Obeys the general contract of List.listIterator(int).

The list-iterator is fail-fast: if the list is structurally modified at any time after the Iterator is created, in any way except through the list-iterator's own remove or add methods, the list-iterator will throw a ConcurrentModificationException. Thus, in the face of concurrent modification, the iterator fails quickly and cleanly, rather than risking arbitrary, non-deterministic behavior at an undetermined time in the future.

Specified by:
listIterator in interface List
Overrides:
listIterator in class AbstractSequentialList
Parameters:
index - index of first element to be returned from the list-iterator (by a call to next).
Returns:
a ListIterator of the elements in this list (in proper sequence), starting at the specified position in the list.
Throws:
IndexOutOfBoundsException - if index is out of range (index < 0 || index > size()).
See Also:
List.listIterator(int)

clone

public Object clone()
Returns a shallow copy of this LinkedList. (The elements themselves are not cloned.)
Overrides:
clone in class Object
Returns:
a shallow copy of this LinkedList instance.

toArray

public Object[] toArray()
Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list in the correct order.
Specified by:
toArray in interface List
Overrides:
toArray in class AbstractCollection
Returns:
an array containing all of the elements in this list in the correct order.

toArray

public Object[] toArray(Object[] a)
Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list in the correct order. The runtime type of the returned array is that of the specified array. If the list fits in the specified array, it is returned therein. Otherwise, a new array is allocated with the runtime type of the specified array and the size of this list.

If the list fits in the specified array with room to spare (i.e., the array has more elements than the list), the element in the array immediately following the end of the collection is set to null. This is useful in determining the length of the list only if the caller knows that the list does not contain any null elements.

Specified by:
toArray in interface List
Overrides:
toArray in class AbstractCollection
Parameters:
a - the array into which the elements of the list are to be stored, if it is big enough; otherwise, a new array of the same runtime type is allocated for this purpose.
Returns:
an array containing the elements of the list.
Throws:
ArrayStoreException - if the runtime type of a is not a supertype of the runtime type of every element in this list.

JavaTM 2 Platform
Std. Ed. v1.3.1

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For further API reference and developer documentation, see Java 2 SDK SE Developer Documentation. That documentation contains more detailed, developer-targeted descriptions, with conceptual overviews, definitions of terms, workarounds, and working code examples.

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