JavaTM 2 Platform
Std. Ed. v1.3.1

java.util
Class TreeSet

java.lang.Object
  |
  +--java.util.AbstractCollection
        |
        +--java.util.AbstractSet
              |
              +--java.util.TreeSet
All Implemented Interfaces:
Cloneable, Collection, Serializable, Set, SortedSet

public class TreeSet
extends AbstractSet
implements SortedSet, Cloneable, Serializable

This class implements the Set interface, backed by a TreeMap instance. This class guarantees that the sorted set will be in ascending element order, sorted according to the natural order of the elements (see Comparable), or by the comparator provided at set creation time, depending on which constructor is used.

This implementation provides guaranteed log(n) time cost for the basic operations (add, remove and contains).

Note that the ordering maintained by a set (whether or not an explicit comparator is provided) must be consistent with equals if it is to correctly implement the Set interface. (See Comparable or Comparator for a precise definition of consistent with equals.) This is so because the Set interface is defined in terms of the equals operation, but a TreeSet instance performs all key comparisons using its compareTo (or compare) method, so two keys that are deemed equal by this method are, from the standpoint of the set, equal. The behavior of a set is well-defined even if its ordering is inconsistent with equals; it just fails to obey the general contract of the Set interface.

Note that this implementation is not synchronized. If multiple threads access a set concurrently, and at least one of the threads modifies the set, it must be synchronized externally. This is typically accomplished by synchronizing on some object that naturally encapsulates the set. If no such object exists, the set should be "wrapped" using the Collections.synchronizedSet method. This is best done at creation time, to prevent accidental unsynchronized access to the set:

     SortedSet s = Collections.synchronizedSortedSet(new TreeSet(...));
 

The Iterators returned by this class's iterator method are fail-fast: if the set is modified at any time after the iterator is created, in any way except through the iterator's own remove method, the iterator will throw a ConcurrentModificationException. Thus, in the face of concurrent modification, the iterator fails quickly and cleanly, rather than risking arbitrary, non-deterministic behavior at an undetermined time in the future.

Since:
1.2
See Also:
Collection, Set, HashSet, Comparable, Comparator, Collections.synchronizedSortedSet(SortedSet), TreeMap, Serialized Form

Constructor Summary
TreeSet()
          Constructs a new, empty set, sorted according to the elements' natural order.
TreeSet(Collection c)
          Constructs a new set containing the elements in the specified collection, sorted according to the elements' natural order.
TreeSet(Comparator c)
          Constructs a new, empty set, sorted according to the given comparator.
TreeSet(SortedSet s)
          Constructs a new set containing the same elements as the given sorted set, sorted according to the same ordering.
 
Method Summary
 boolean add(Object o)
          Adds the specified element to this set if it is not already present.
 boolean addAll(Collection c)
          Adds all of the elements in the specified collection to this set.
 void clear()
          Removes all of the elements from this set.
 Object clone()
          Returns a shallow copy of this TreeSet instance.
 Comparator comparator()
          Returns the comparator used to order this sorted set, or null if this tree set uses its elements natural ordering.
 boolean contains(Object o)
          Returns true if this set contains the specified element.
 Object first()
          Returns the first (lowest) element currently in this sorted set.
 SortedSet headSet(Object toElement)
          Returns a view of the portion of this set whose elements are strictly less than toElement.
 boolean isEmpty()
          Returns true if this set contains no elements.
 Iterator iterator()
          Returns an iterator over the elements in this set.
 Object last()
          Returns the last (highest) element currently in this sorted set.
 boolean remove(Object o)
          Removes the given element from this set if it is present.
 int size()
          Returns the number of elements in this set (its cardinality).
 SortedSet subSet(Object fromElement, Object toElement)
          Returns a view of the portion of this set whose elements range from fromElement, inclusive, to toElement, exclusive.
 SortedSet tailSet(Object fromElement)
          Returns a view of the portion of this set whose elements are greater than or equal to fromElement.
 
Methods inherited from class java.util.AbstractSet
equals, hashCode, removeAll
 
Methods inherited from class java.util.AbstractCollection
containsAll, retainAll, toArray, toArray, toString
 
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
finalize, getClass, notify, notifyAll, wait, wait, wait
 
Methods inherited from interface java.util.Set
containsAll, equals, hashCode, removeAll, retainAll, toArray, toArray
 

Constructor Detail

TreeSet

public TreeSet()
Constructs a new, empty set, sorted according to the elements' natural order. All elements inserted into the set must implement the Comparable interface. Furthermore, all such elements must be mutually comparable: e1.compareTo(e2) must not throw a ClassCastException for any elements e1 and e2 in the set. If the user attempts to add an element to the set that violates this constraint (for example, the user attempts to add a string element to a set whose elements are integers), the add(Object) call will throw a ClassCastException.
See Also:
Comparable

TreeSet

public TreeSet(Comparator c)
Constructs a new, empty set, sorted according to the given comparator. All elements inserted into the set must be mutually comparable by the given comparator: comparator.compare(e1, e2) must not throw a ClassCastException for any elements e1 and e2 in the set. If the user attempts to add an element to the set that violates this constraint, the add(Object) call will throw a ClassCastException.
Parameters:
c - the comparator that will be used to sort this set. A null value indicates that the elements' natural ordering should be used.

TreeSet

public TreeSet(Collection c)
Constructs a new set containing the elements in the specified collection, sorted according to the elements' natural order. All keys inserted into the set must implement the Comparable interface. Furthermore, all such keys must be mutually comparable: k1.compareTo(k2) must not throw a ClassCastException for any elements k1 and k2 in the set.
Parameters:
c - The elements that will comprise the new set.
Throws:
ClassCastException - if the keys in the given collection are not comparable, or are not mutually comparable.

TreeSet

public TreeSet(SortedSet s)
Constructs a new set containing the same elements as the given sorted set, sorted according to the same ordering.
Parameters:
s - sorted set whose elements will comprise the new set.
Method Detail

iterator

public Iterator iterator()
Returns an iterator over the elements in this set. The elements are returned in ascending order.
Specified by:
iterator in interface Set
Overrides:
iterator in class AbstractCollection
Returns:
an iterator over the elements in this set.

size

public int size()
Returns the number of elements in this set (its cardinality).
Specified by:
size in interface Set
Overrides:
size in class AbstractCollection
Returns:
the number of elements in this set (its cardinality).

isEmpty

public boolean isEmpty()
Returns true if this set contains no elements.
Specified by:
isEmpty in interface Set
Overrides:
isEmpty in class AbstractCollection
Returns:
true if this set contains no elements.

contains

public boolean contains(Object o)
Returns true if this set contains the specified element.
Specified by:
contains in interface Set
Overrides:
contains in class AbstractCollection
Parameters:
o - the object to be checked for containment in this set.
Returns:
true if this set contains the specified element.
Throws:
ClassCastException - if the specified object cannot be compared with the elements currently in the set.

add

public boolean add(Object o)
Adds the specified element to this set if it is not already present.
Specified by:
add in interface Set
Overrides:
add in class AbstractCollection
Parameters:
o - element to be added to this set.
Returns:
true if the set did not already contain the specified element.
Throws:
ClassCastException - if the specified object cannot be compared with the elements currently in the set.

remove

public boolean remove(Object o)
Removes the given element from this set if it is present.
Specified by:
remove in interface Set
Overrides:
remove in class AbstractCollection
Parameters:
o - object to be removed from this set, if present.
Returns:
true if the set contained the specified element.
Throws:
ClassCastException - if the specified object cannot be compared with the elements currently in the set.

clear

public void clear()
Removes all of the elements from this set.
Specified by:
clear in interface Set
Overrides:
clear in class AbstractCollection
Following copied from interface: java.util.Set
Throws:
UnsupportedOperationException - if the clear method is not supported by this set.

addAll

public boolean addAll(Collection c)
Adds all of the elements in the specified collection to this set.
Specified by:
addAll in interface Set
Overrides:
addAll in class AbstractCollection
Parameters:
c - elements to be added
Returns:
true if this set changed as a result of the call.
Throws:
ClassCastException - if the elements provided cannot be compared with the elements currently in the set.

subSet

public SortedSet subSet(Object fromElement,
                        Object toElement)
Returns a view of the portion of this set whose elements range from fromElement, inclusive, to toElement, exclusive. (If fromElement and toElement are equal, the returned sorted set is empty.) The returned sorted set is backed by this set, so changes in the returned sorted set are reflected in this set, and vice-versa. The returned sorted set supports all optional Set operations.

The sorted set returned by this method will throw an IllegalArgumentException if the user attempts to insert an element outside the specified range.

Note: this method always returns a half-open range (which includes its low endpoint but not its high endpoint). If you need a closed range (which includes both endpoints), and the element type allows for calculation of the successor a given value, merely request the subrange from lowEndpoint to successor(highEndpoint). For example, suppose that s is a sorted set of strings. The following idiom obtains a view containing all of the strings in s from low to high, inclusive:

     SortedSet sub = s.subSet(low, high+"\0");
 
A similar technique can be used to generate an open range (which contains neither endpoint). The following idiom obtains a view containing all of the strings in s from low to high, exclusive:
     SortedSet sub = s.subSet(low+"\0", high);
 
Specified by:
subSet in interface SortedSet
Parameters:
fromElement - low endpoint (inclusive) of the subSet.
toElement - high endpoint (exclusive) of the subSet.
Returns:
a view of the portion of this set whose elements range from fromElement, inclusive, to toElement, exclusive.
Throws:
ClassCastException - if fromElement and toElement cannot be compared to one another using this set's comparator (or, if the set has no comparator, using natural ordering).
IllegalArgumentException - if fromElement is greater than toElement.
NullPointerException - if fromElement or toElement is null and this set uses natural order, or its comparator does not tolerate null elements.

headSet

public SortedSet headSet(Object toElement)
Returns a view of the portion of this set whose elements are strictly less than toElement. The returned sorted set is backed by this set, so changes in the returned sorted set are reflected in this set, and vice-versa. The returned sorted set supports all optional set operations.

The sorted set returned by this method will throw an IllegalArgumentException if the user attempts to insert an element greater than or equal to toElement.

Note: this method always returns a view that does not contain its (high) endpoint. If you need a view that does contain this endpoint, and the element type allows for calculation of the successor a given value, merely request a headSet bounded by successor(highEndpoint). For example, suppose that s is a sorted set of strings. The following idiom obtains a view containing all of the strings in s that are less than or equal to high:

 SortedSet head = s.headSet(high+"\0");
Specified by:
headSet in interface SortedSet
Parameters:
toElement - high endpoint (exclusive) of the headSet.
Returns:
a view of the portion of this set whose elements are strictly less than toElement.
Throws:
ClassCastException - if toElement is not compatible with this set's comparator (or, if the set has no comparator, if toElement does not implement Comparable).
IllegalArgumentException - if this set is itself a subSet, headSet, or tailSet, and toElement is not within the specified range of the subSet, headSet, or tailSet.
NullPointerException - if toElement is null and this set uses natural ordering, or its comparator does not tolerate null elements.

tailSet

public SortedSet tailSet(Object fromElement)
Returns a view of the portion of this set whose elements are greater than or equal to fromElement. The returned sorted set is backed by this set, so changes in the returned sorted set are reflected in this set, and vice-versa. The returned sorted set supports all optional set operations.

The sorted set returned by this method will throw an IllegalArgumentException if the user attempts to insert an element less than fromElement. Note: this method always returns a view that contains its (low) endpoint. If you need a view that does not contain this endpoint, and the element type allows for calculation of the successor a given value, merely request a tailSet bounded by successor(lowEndpoint). For example, suppose that s is a sorted set of strings. The following idiom obtains a view containing all of the strings in s that are strictly greater than low:

     SortedSet tail = s.tailSet(low+"\0");
 
Specified by:
tailSet in interface SortedSet
Parameters:
fromElement - low endpoint (inclusive) of the tailSet.
Returns:
a view of the portion of this set whose elements are greater than or equal to fromElement.
Throws:
ClassCastException - if fromElement is not compatible with this set's comparator (or, if the set has no comparator, if fromElement does not implement Comparable).
IllegalArgumentException - if this set is itself a subSet, headSet, or tailSet, and fromElement is not within the specified range of the subSet, headSet, or tailSet.
NullPointerException - if fromElement is null and this set uses natural ordering, or its comparator does not tolerate null elements.

comparator

public Comparator comparator()
Returns the comparator used to order this sorted set, or null if this tree set uses its elements natural ordering.
Specified by:
comparator in interface SortedSet
Returns:
the comparator used to order this sorted set, or null if this tree set uses its elements natural ordering.

first

public Object first()
Returns the first (lowest) element currently in this sorted set.
Specified by:
first in interface SortedSet
Returns:
the first (lowest) element currently in this sorted set.
Throws:
NoSuchElementException - sorted set is empty.

last

public Object last()
Returns the last (highest) element currently in this sorted set.
Specified by:
last in interface SortedSet
Returns:
the last (highest) element currently in this sorted set.
Throws:
NoSuchElementException - sorted set is empty.

clone

public Object clone()
Returns a shallow copy of this TreeSet instance. (The elements themselves are not cloned.)
Overrides:
clone in class Object
Returns:
a shallow copy of this set.

JavaTM 2 Platform
Std. Ed. v1.3.1

Submit a bug or feature
For further API reference and developer documentation, see Java 2 SDK SE Developer Documentation. That documentation contains more detailed, developer-targeted descriptions, with conceptual overviews, definitions of terms, workarounds, and working code examples.

Java, Java 2D, and JDBC are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the US and other countries.
Copyright 1993-2001 Sun Microsystems, Inc. 901 San Antonio Road
Palo Alto, California, 94303, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved.



Spec-Zone.ru - all specs in one place



free hit counter