JavaTM 2 Platform
Standard Ed. 5.0

java.util
Class ArrayList<E>

java.lang.Object
  extended by java.util.AbstractCollection<E>
      extended by java.util.AbstractList<E>
          extended by java.util.ArrayList<E>
All Implemented Interfaces:
Serializable, Cloneable, Iterable<E>, Collection<E>, List<E>, RandomAccess
Direct Known Subclasses:
AttributeList, RoleList, RoleUnresolvedList

public class ArrayList<E>
extends AbstractList<E>
implements List<E>, RandomAccess, Cloneable, Serializable

Resizable-array implementation of the List interface. Implements all optional list operations, and permits all elements, including null. In addition to implementing the List interface, this class provides methods to manipulate the size of the array that is used internally to store the list. (This class is roughly equivalent to Vector, except that it is unsynchronized.)

The size, isEmpty, get, set, iterator, and listIterator operations run in constant time. The add operation runs in amortized constant time, that is, adding n elements requires O(n) time. All of the other operations run in linear time (roughly speaking). The constant factor is low compared to that for the LinkedList implementation.

Each ArrayList instance has a capacity. The capacity is the size of the array used to store the elements in the list. It is always at least as large as the list size. As elements are added to an ArrayList, its capacity grows automatically. The details of the growth policy are not specified beyond the fact that adding an element has constant amortized time cost.

An application can increase the capacity of an ArrayList instance before adding a large number of elements using the ensureCapacity operation. This may reduce the amount of incremental reallocation.

Note that this implementation is not synchronized. If multiple threads access an ArrayList instance concurrently, and at least one of the threads modifies the list structurally, it must be synchronized externally. (A structural modification is any operation that adds or deletes one or more elements, or explicitly resizes the backing array; merely setting the value of an element is not a structural modification.) This is typically accomplished by synchronizing on some object that naturally encapsulates the list. If no such object exists, the list should be "wrapped" using the Collections.synchronizedList method. This is best done at creation time, to prevent accidental unsynchronized access to the list:

        List list = Collections.synchronizedList(new ArrayList(...));
 

The iterators returned by this class's iterator and listIterator methods are fail-fast: if list is structurally modified at any time after the iterator is created, in any way except through the iterator's own remove or add methods, the iterator will throw a ConcurrentModificationException. Thus, in the face of concurrent modification, the iterator fails quickly and cleanly, rather than risking arbitrary, non-deterministic behavior at an undetermined time in the future.

Note that the fail-fast behavior of an iterator cannot be guaranteed as it is, generally speaking, impossible to make any hard guarantees in the presence of unsynchronized concurrent modification. Fail-fast iterators throw ConcurrentModificationException on a best-effort basis. Therefore, it would be wrong to write a program that depended on this exception for its correctness: the fail-fast behavior of iterators should be used only to detect bugs.

This class is a member of the Java Collections Framework.

Since:
1.2
See Also:
Collection, List, LinkedList, Vector, Collections.synchronizedList(List), Serialized Form

Field Summary
 
Fields inherited from class java.util.AbstractList
modCount
 
Constructor Summary
ArrayList()
          Constructs an empty list with an initial capacity of ten.
ArrayList(Collection<? extends E> c)
          Constructs a list containing the elements of the specified collection, in the order they are returned by the collection's iterator.
ArrayList(int initialCapacity)
          Constructs an empty list with the specified initial capacity.
 
Method Summary
 boolean add(E o)
          Appends the specified element to the end of this list.
 void add(int index, E element)
          Inserts the specified element at the specified position in this list.
 boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c)
          Appends all of the elements in the specified Collection to the end of this list, in the order that they are returned by the specified Collection's Iterator.
 boolean addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c)
          Inserts all of the elements in the specified Collection into this list, starting at the specified position.
 void clear()
          Removes all of the elements from this list.
 Object clone()
          Returns a shallow copy of this ArrayList instance.
 boolean contains(Object elem)
          Returns true if this list contains the specified element.
 void ensureCapacity(int minCapacity)
          Increases the capacity of this ArrayList instance, if necessary, to ensure that it can hold at least the number of elements specified by the minimum capacity argument.
 E get(int index)
          Returns the element at the specified position in this list.
 int indexOf(Object elem)
          Searches for the first occurence of the given argument, testing for equality using the equals method.
 boolean isEmpty()
          Tests if this list has no elements.
 int lastIndexOf(Object elem)
          Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified object in this list.
 E remove(int index)
          Removes the element at the specified position in this list.
 boolean remove(Object o)
          Removes a single instance of the specified element from this list, if it is present (optional operation).
protected  void removeRange(int fromIndex, int toIndex)
          Removes from this List all of the elements whose index is between fromIndex, inclusive and toIndex, exclusive.
 E set(int index, E element)
          Replaces the element at the specified position in this list with the specified element.
 int size()
          Returns the number of elements in this list.
 Object[] toArray()
          Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list in the correct order.
<T> T[]
toArray(T[] a)
          Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list in the correct order; the runtime type of the returned array is that of the specified array.
 void trimToSize()
          Trims the capacity of this ArrayList instance to be the list's current size.
 
Methods inherited from class java.util.AbstractList
equals, hashCode, iterator, listIterator, listIterator, subList
 
Methods inherited from class java.util.AbstractCollection
containsAll, removeAll, retainAll, toString
 
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
finalize, getClass, notify, notifyAll, wait, wait, wait
 
Methods inherited from interface java.util.List
containsAll, equals, hashCode, iterator, listIterator, listIterator, removeAll, retainAll, subList
 

Constructor Detail

ArrayList

public ArrayList(int initialCapacity)
Constructs an empty list with the specified initial capacity.

Parameters:
initialCapacity - the initial capacity of the list.
Throws:
IllegalArgumentException - if the specified initial capacity is negative

ArrayList

public ArrayList()
Constructs an empty list with an initial capacity of ten.


ArrayList

public ArrayList(Collection<? extends E> c)
Constructs a list containing the elements of the specified collection, in the order they are returned by the collection's iterator. The ArrayList instance has an initial capacity of 110% the size of the specified collection.

Parameters:
c - the collection whose elements are to be placed into this list.
Throws:
NullPointerException - if the specified collection is null.
Method Detail

trimToSize

public void trimToSize()
Trims the capacity of this ArrayList instance to be the list's current size. An application can use this operation to minimize the storage of an ArrayList instance.


ensureCapacity

public void ensureCapacity(int minCapacity)
Increases the capacity of this ArrayList instance, if necessary, to ensure that it can hold at least the number of elements specified by the minimum capacity argument.

Parameters:
minCapacity - the desired minimum capacity.

size

public int size()
Returns the number of elements in this list.

Specified by:
size in interface Collection<E>
Specified by:
size in interface List<E>
Specified by:
size in class AbstractCollection<E>
Returns:
the number of elements in this list.

isEmpty

public boolean isEmpty()
Tests if this list has no elements.

Specified by:
isEmpty in interface Collection<E>
Specified by:
isEmpty in interface List<E>
Overrides:
isEmpty in class AbstractCollection<E>
Returns:
true if this list has no elements; false otherwise.

contains

public boolean contains(Object elem)
Returns true if this list contains the specified element.

Specified by:
contains in interface Collection<E>
Specified by:
contains in interface List<E>
Overrides:
contains in class AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
elem - element whose presence in this List is to be tested.
Returns:
true if the specified element is present; false otherwise.

indexOf

public int indexOf(Object elem)
Searches for the first occurence of the given argument, testing for equality using the equals method.

Specified by:
indexOf in interface List<E>
Overrides:
indexOf in class AbstractList<E>
Parameters:
elem - an object.
Returns:
the index of the first occurrence of the argument in this list; returns -1 if the object is not found.
See Also:
Object.equals(Object)

lastIndexOf

public int lastIndexOf(Object elem)
Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified object in this list.

Specified by:
lastIndexOf in interface List<E>
Overrides:
lastIndexOf in class AbstractList<E>
Parameters:
elem - the desired element.
Returns:
the index of the last occurrence of the specified object in this list; returns -1 if the object is not found.

clone

public Object clone()
Returns a shallow copy of this ArrayList instance. (The elements themselves are not copied.)

Overrides:
clone in class Object
Returns:
a clone of this ArrayList instance.
See Also:
Cloneable

toArray

public Object[] toArray()
Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list in the correct order.

Specified by:
toArray in interface Collection<E>
Specified by:
toArray in interface List<E>
Overrides:
toArray in class AbstractCollection<E>
Returns:
an array containing all of the elements in this list in the correct order.
See Also:
Arrays.asList(Object[])

toArray

public <T> T[] toArray(T[] a)
Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list in the correct order; the runtime type of the returned array is that of the specified array. If the list fits in the specified array, it is returned therein. Otherwise, a new array is allocated with the runtime type of the specified array and the size of this list.

If the list fits in the specified array with room to spare (i.e., the array has more elements than the list), the element in the array immediately following the end of the collection is set to null. This is useful in determining the length of the list only if the caller knows that the list does not contain any null elements.

Specified by:
toArray in interface Collection<E>
Specified by:
toArray in interface List<E>
Overrides:
toArray in class AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
a - the array into which the elements of the list are to be stored, if it is big enough; otherwise, a new array of the same runtime type is allocated for this purpose.
Returns:
an array containing the elements of the list.
Throws:
ArrayStoreException - if the runtime type of a is not a supertype of the runtime type of every element in this list.

get

public E get(int index)
Returns the element at the specified position in this list.

Specified by:
get in interface List<E>
Specified by:
get in class AbstractList<E>
Parameters:
index - index of element to return.
Returns:
the element at the specified position in this list.
Throws:
IndexOutOfBoundsException - if index is out of range (index < 0 || index >= size()).

set

public E set(int index,
             E element)
Replaces the element at the specified position in this list with the specified element.

Specified by:
set in interface List<E>
Overrides:
set in class AbstractList<E>
Parameters:
index - index of element to replace.
element - element to be stored at the specified position.
Returns:
the element previously at the specified position.
Throws:
IndexOutOfBoundsException - if index out of range (index < 0 || index >= size()).

add

public boolean add(E o)
Appends the specified element to the end of this list.

Specified by:
add in interface Collection<E>
Specified by:
add in interface List<E>
Overrides:
add in class AbstractList<E>
Parameters:
o - element to be appended to this list.
Returns:
true (as per the general contract of Collection.add).

add

public void add(int index,
                E element)
Inserts the specified element at the specified position in this list. Shifts the element currently at that position (if any) and any subsequent elements to the right (adds one to their indices).

Specified by:
add in interface List<E>
Overrides:
add in class AbstractList<E>
Parameters:
index - index at which the specified element is to be inserted.
element - element to be inserted.
Throws:
IndexOutOfBoundsException - if index is out of range (index < 0 || index > size()).

remove

public E remove(int index)
Removes the element at the specified position in this list. Shifts any subsequent elements to the left (subtracts one from their indices).

Specified by:
remove in interface List<E>
Overrides:
remove in class AbstractList<E>
Parameters:
index - the index of the element to removed.
Returns:
the element that was removed from the list.
Throws:
IndexOutOfBoundsException - if index out of range (index < 0 || index >= size()).

remove

public boolean remove(Object o)
Removes a single instance of the specified element from this list, if it is present (optional operation). More formally, removes an element e such that (o==null ? e==null : o.equals(e)), if the list contains one or more such elements. Returns true if the list contained the specified element (or equivalently, if the list changed as a result of the call).

Specified by:
remove in interface Collection<E>
Specified by:
remove in interface List<E>
Overrides:
remove in class AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
o - element to be removed from this list, if present.
Returns:
true if the list contained the specified element.

clear

public void clear()
Removes all of the elements from this list. The list will be empty after this call returns.

Specified by:
clear in interface Collection<E>
Specified by:
clear in interface List<E>
Overrides:
clear in class AbstractList<E>

addAll

public boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c)
Appends all of the elements in the specified Collection to the end of this list, in the order that they are returned by the specified Collection's Iterator. The behavior of this operation is undefined if the specified Collection is modified while the operation is in progress. (This implies that the behavior of this call is undefined if the specified Collection is this list, and this list is nonempty.)

Specified by:
addAll in interface Collection<E>
Specified by:
addAll in interface List<E>
Overrides:
addAll in class AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
c - the elements to be inserted into this list.
Returns:
true if this list changed as a result of the call.
Throws:
NullPointerException - if the specified collection is null.
See Also:
AbstractCollection.add(Object)

addAll

public boolean addAll(int index,
                      Collection<? extends E> c)
Inserts all of the elements in the specified Collection into this list, starting at the specified position. Shifts the element currently at that position (if any) and any subsequent elements to the right (increases their indices). The new elements will appear in the list in the order that they are returned by the specified Collection's iterator.

Specified by:
addAll in interface List<E>
Overrides:
addAll in class AbstractList<E>
Parameters:
index - index at which to insert first element from the specified collection.
c - elements to be inserted into this list.
Returns:
true if this list changed as a result of the call.
Throws:
IndexOutOfBoundsException - if index out of range (index < 0 || index > size()).
NullPointerException - if the specified Collection is null.

removeRange

protected void removeRange(int fromIndex,
                           int toIndex)
Removes from this List all of the elements whose index is between fromIndex, inclusive and toIndex, exclusive. Shifts any succeeding elements to the left (reduces their index). This call shortens the list by (toIndex - fromIndex) elements. (If toIndex==fromIndex, this operation has no effect.)

Overrides:
removeRange in class AbstractList<E>
Parameters:
fromIndex - index of first element to be removed.
toIndex - index after last element to be removed.

JavaTM 2 Platform
Standard Ed. 5.0

Submit a bug or feature
For further API reference and developer documentation, see Java 2 SDK SE Developer Documentation. That documentation contains more detailed, developer-targeted descriptions, with conceptual overviews, definitions of terms, workarounds, and working code examples.

Copyright 2004 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved. Use is subject to license terms. Also see the documentation redistribution policy.


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