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20.11 The Class java.lang.Math

The class Math contains useful basic numerical constants and methods.

public final class Math {
	public static final double E = 2.7182818284590452354;
	public static final double PI = 3.14159265358979323846;
	public static double sin(double a);
	public static double cos(double a);
	public static double tan(double a);
	public static double asin(double a);
	public static double acos(double a);
	public static double atan(double a);
	public static double atan2(double a, double b);
	public static double exp(double a);
	public static double log(double a);
	public static double sqrt(double a);
	public static double pow(double a, double b);
	public static double IEEEremainder(double f1, double f2);
	public static double ceil(double a);
	public static double floor(double a);
	public static double rint(double a);
	public static int round(float a);
	public static long round(double a);
	public static double random();
	public static int abs(int a);
	public static long abs(long a);
	public static float abs(float a);
	public static double abs(double a);
	public static int min(int a, int b);
	public static long min(long a, long b);
	public static float min(float a, float b);
	public static double min(double a, double b);
	public static int max(int a, int b);
	public static long max(long a, long b);
	public static float max(float a, float b);
	public static double max(double a, double b);
}
To ensure portability of Java programs, the specifications of many of the numerical functions in this package require that they produce the same results as certain published algorithms. These algorithms are available from the well-known network library netlib as the package fdlibm ("Freely Distributable Math Library"). These algorithms, which are written in the C programming language, are to be understood as if executed in Java execution order with all floating-point operations following the rules of Java floating-point arithmetic.

The network library may be found at http://netlib.att.com on the World Wide Web; then perform a keyword search for fdlibm. The library may also be retrieved by E-mail; to begin the process, send a message containing the line:

send index from fdlibm
to netlib@research.att.com. The Java math library is defined with respect to the version of fdlibm dated 95/01/04. Where fdlibm provides more than one definition for a function (such as acos), the "IEEE754 core function" version is to be used (residing in a file whose name begins with the letter e).

A complete and self-contained description of the algorithms to be used for these functions will be provided in a future version of this specification. It is also anticipated that the algorithms will be coded in Java to provide a reference implementation that is not tied to fdlibm.

20.11.1 public static final double E = 2.7182818284590452354;

The constant value of this field is the double value that is closer than any other to e, the base of the natural logarithms.

20.11.2 public static final double PI = 3.14159265358979323846;

The constant value of this field is the double value that is closer than any other to , the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.

20.11.3 public static double sin(double a)

This method computes an approximation to the sine of the argument, using the sin algorithm as published in fdlibm (see the introduction to this section).

Special cases:

20.11.4 public static double cos(double a)

This method computes an approximation to the cosine of the argument, using the cos algorithm as published in fdlibm (see the introduction to this section).

Special case:

20.11.5 public static double tan(double a)

This method computes an approximation to the tangent of the argument, using the tan algorithm as published in fdlibm (see the introduction to this section).

Special cases:

20.11.6 public static double asin(double a)

This method computes an approximation to the arc sine of the argument, using the asin algorithm as published in fdlibm (see the introduction to this section).

Special cases:

20.11.7 public static double acos(double a)

This method computes an approximation to the arc cosine of the argument, using the acos algorithm as published in fdlibm (see the introduction to this section).

Special case:

20.11.8 public static double atan(double a)

This method computes an approximation to the arc tangent of the argument, using the atan algorithm as published in fdlibm (see the introduction to this section).

Special cases:

20.11.9 public static double atan2(double y, double x)

This method computes an approximation to the arc tangent of the quotient of the arguments, using the atan2 algorithm as published in fdlibm (see the introduction to this section).

Special cases:

20.11.10 public static double exp(double a)

This method computes an approximation to the exponential function of the argument (e raised to the power of the argument, where e is the base of the natural logarithms (§20.11.1)), using the exp algorithm as published in fdlibm (see the introduction to this section).

Special cases:

20.11.11 public static double log(double a)

This method computes an approximation to the natural logarithm of the argument, using the log algorithm as published in fdlibm (see the introduction to this section).

Special cases:

20.11.12 public static double sqrt(double a)

This method computes an approximation to the square root of the argument.

Special cases:

Otherwise, the result is the double value closest to the true mathematical square root of the argument value.

20.11.13 public static double pow(double a, double b)

This method computes an approximation to the mathematical operation of raising the first argument to the power of the second argument, using the pow algorithm as published in fdlibm (see the introduction to this section).

Special cases:

(In the foregoing descriptions, a floating-point value is considered to be an integer if and only if it is a fixed point of the method ceil (§20.11.15) or, which is the same thing, a fixed point of the method floor (§20.11.16). A value is a fixed point of a one-argument method if and only if the result of applying the method to the value is equal to the value.)

20.11.14 public static double IEEEremainder(double x, double y)

This method computes the remainder operation on two arguments as prescribed by the IEEE 754 standard: the remainder value is mathematically equal to where is the mathematical integer closest to the exact mathematical value of the quotient ; if two mathematical integers are equally close to then n is the integer that is even. If the remainder is zero, its sign is the same as the sign of the first argument.

Special cases:

20.11.15 public static double ceil(double a)

The result is the smallest (closest to negative infinity) double value that is not less than the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.

Special cases:

Note that the value of Math.ceil(x) is exactly the value of -Math.floor(-x).

20.11.16 public static double floor(double a)

The result is the largest (closest to positive infinity) double value that is not greater than the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.

Special cases:

20.11.17 public static double rint(double a)

The result is the double value that is closest in value to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. If two double values that are mathematical integers are equally close to the value of the argument, the result is the integer value that is even.

Special cases:

20.11.18 public static int round(float a)

The result is rounded to an integer by adding , taking the floor of the result, and casting the result to type int.

In other words, the result is equal to the value of the expression:

(int)Math.floor(a + 0.5f)
Special cases:

20.11.19 public static long round(double a)

The result is rounded to an integer by adding , taking the floor of the result, and casting the result to type long.

In other words, the result is equal to the value of the expression:

(long)Math.floor(a + 0.5d)
Special cases:

20.11.20 public static double random()

The result is a double value with positive sign, greater than or equal to zero but less than 1.0, chosen pseudorandomly with (approximately) uniform distribution from that range.

When this method is first called, it creates a single new pseudorandom-number generator, exactly as if by the expression

new java.util.Random()
This new pseudorandom-number generator is used thereafter for all calls to this method and is used nowhere else.

This method is properly synchronized to allow correct use by more than one thread. However, if many threads need to generate pseudorandom numbers at a great rate, it may reduce contention for each thread to have its own pseudorandom number generator.

20.11.21 public static int abs(int a)

The result is the absolute value of the argument, if possible.

If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned.

If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned. Note that if the argument is equal to the value of Integer.MIN_VALUE (§20.7.1), the most negative representable int value, the result will be that same negative value.

20.11.22 public static long abs(long a)

The result is the absolute value of the argument, if possible.

If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned.

If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned. Note that if the argument is equal to the value of Long.MIN_VALUE (§20.8.1), the most negative representable long value, the result will be that same negative value.

20.11.23 public static float abs(float a)

The argument is returned with its sign changed to be positive.

Special cases:

In other words, the result is equal to the value of the expression:

Float.intBitsToFloat(0x7fffffff & Float.floatToIntBits(a))
[This specification for the method abs is scheduled for introduction in Java version 1.1. In previous versions of Java, abs(-0.0f) returns -0.0f, which is not correct.]

20.11.24 public static double abs(double a)

The argument is returned with its sign changed to be positive.

Special cases:

In other words, the result is equal to the value of the expression:

Double.longBitsToDouble((Double.doubleToLongBits(a)<<1)>>>1)
[This specification for the method abs is scheduled for introduction in Java version 1.1. In previous versions of Java, abs(-0.0d) returns -0.0d, which is not correct.]

20.11.25 public static int min(int a, int b)

The result is the smaller of the two arguments-that is, the one closer to the value of Integer.MIN_VALUE (§20.7.1). If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.

20.11.26 public static long min(long a, long b)

The result is the smaller of the two arguments-that is, the one closer to the value of Long.MIN_VALUE (§20.8.1). If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.

20.11.27 public static float min(float a, float b)

The result is the smaller of the two arguments-that is, the one closer to negative infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.

Special cases:

[This specification for the method min is scheduled for introduction in Java version 1.1. In previous versions of Java, min(0.0f, -0.0f) returns 0.0f, which is not correct.]

20.11.28 public static double min(double a, double b)

The result is the smaller of the two arguments-that is, the one closer to negative infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.

Special cases:

[This specification for the method min is scheduled for introduction in Java version 1.1. In previous versions of Java, min(0.0d, -0.0d) returns 0.0d, which is not correct.]

20.11.29 public static int max(int a, int b)

The result is the larger of the two arguments-that is, the one closer to the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE (§20.7.2). If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.

20.11.30 public static long max(long a, long b)

The result is the larger of the two arguments-that is, the one closer to the value of Long.MAX_VALUE (§20.8.2). If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.

20.11.31 public static float max(float a, float b)

The result is the larger of the two arguments-that is, the one closer to positive infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.

Special cases:

[This specification for the method max is scheduled for introduction in Java version 1.1. In previous versions of Java, max(-0.0f, 0.0f) returns -0.0f, which is not correct.]

20.11.32 public static double max(double a, double b)

The result is the larger of the two arguments-that is, the one closer to positive infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.

Special cases:

[This specification for the method max is scheduled for introduction in Java version 1.1. In previous versions of Java, max(-0.0d, 0.0d) returns -0.0d, which is not correct.].


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