Oracle provides a set of binary distributions of MySQL. These include binary distributions in the form of
compressed tar files (files with a
.tar.gz extension) for a number of platforms, as well as binaries in
platform-specific package formats for selected platforms.
This section covers the installation of MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution. For other platform-specific package formats, see the other platform-specific sections. For example, for Windows distributions, see Section 2.3, "Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows".
To obtain MySQL, see Section 2.1.3, "How to Get MySQL".
MySQL compressed tar file binary distributions have names of the
is a number (for example,
OS indicates the type of operating system for which the
distribution is intended (for example,
To install MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution,
your system must have GNU
gunzip to uncompress the distribution and a reasonable
tar to unpack it. If your tar program supports the
it can both uncompress and unpack the file.
GNU tar is known to work. The standard tar provided with some operating systems is not able to unpack the
long file names in the MySQL distribution. You should download and install GNU tar, or if available, use a preinstalled version of GNU tar.
Usually this is available as gnutar, gtar, or as tar
within a GNU or Free Software directory, such as
/usr/local/bin. GNU tar is
If you have previously installed MySQL using your operating system native package management
system, such as
apt-get, you may experience
problems installing using a native binary. Make sure your previous MySQL previous installation has been
removed entirely (using your package management system), and that any additional files, such as old versions
of your data files, have also been removed. You should also check the existence of configuration files such
/etc/my.cnf or the
/etc/mysql directory have
If you run into problems and need to file a bug report, please use the instructions in Section 1.7, "How to Report Bugs or Problems".
On Unix, to install a compressed tar file binary distribution,
unpack it at the installation location you choose (typically
This creates the directories shown in the following table.
Table 2.3. MySQL Installation Layout for Generic Unix/Linux Binary Package
|Directory||Contents of Directory|
||Client programs and the mysqld server|
||Log files, databases|
||Manual in Info format|
||Unix manual pages|
||Include (header) files|
||Miscellaneous support files, including error messages, sampleconfiguration files, SQL for database installation|
Debug versions of the mysqld binary are available as mysqld-debug. To compile your own debug version of MySQL from a source distribution, use the appropriate configuration options to enable debugging support. For more information on compiling from source, see Section 2.9, "Installing MySQL from Source".
To install and use a MySQL binary distribution, the basic command sequence looks like this:
useradd -r -g mysql mysqlshell>
chown -R mysql .shell>
chgrp -R mysql .shell>
chown -R root .shell>
chown -R mysql datashell>
bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &# Next command is optionalshell>
cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server
creates a default option file named
my.cnf in the base installation directory.
This file is created from a template included in the distribution package named
For more information, see Section 22.214.171.124,
"Using a Sample Default Server Configuration File".
A more detailed version of the preceding description for installing a binary distribution follows.
This procedure assumes that you have
root (administrator) access to
your system. Alternatively, you can prefix each command using the sudo (Linux) or pfexec (OpenSolaris) command.
The procedure does not set up any passwords for MySQL accounts. After following the procedure, proceed to Section 2.10, "Postinstallation Setup and Testing".
If your system does not already have a user and group for mysqld to run as, you may need to create one. The following
commands add the
mysql group and the
mysql user. You
might want to call the user and group something else instead of
mysql. If so,
substitute the appropriate name in the following instructions. The syntax for useradd
and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix, or
they may have different names such as adduser and addgroup.
useradd -r -g mysql mysql
Because the user is required only for ownership purposes, not login purposes, the useradd command uses the
to create a user that does not have login permissions to your server host. Omit this option to permit logins
for the user (or if your useradd does not support the option).
Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution and change location into it. The example here
unpacks the distribution under
/usr/local. The instructions, therefore, assume
that you have permission to create files and directories in
/usr/local. If that
directory is protected, you must perform the installation as
Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section 2.1.3, "How to Get MySQL". For a given release, binary distributions for all platforms are built from the same MySQL source distribution.
Unpack the distribution, which creates the installation directory. Then create a symbolic link to that
directory. tar can uncompress and unpack the distribution if it
z option support:
The tar command creates a directory named
ln command makes a symbolic link to that directory. This enables you to refer more
easily to the installation directory as
If your tar does not have
support, use gunzip to unpack the distribution and tar to unpack it. Replace the preceding tar command with the following alternative command to uncompress
and extract the distribution:
/path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -
The remainder of the installation process involves setting up the configuration file, creating the core databases, and starting the MySQL server. For instructions, see Section 2.10, "Postinstallation Setup and Testing".
The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in Section 2.10, "Postinstallation Setup and Testing".