This is the Reference Manual for the MySQL Database System, version 5.6, through release 5.6.13. Differences
between minor versions of MySQL 5.6 are noted in the present text with reference to release numbers (5.6.
x). For license information, see the Legal
Notices. This product may contain third-party code. For license information on third-party code, see Appendix
A, Licenses for Third-Party Components.
This manual is not intended for use with older versions of the MySQL software due to the many functional and
other differences between MySQL 5.6 and previous versions. If you are using an earlier release of the MySQL
software, please refer to the appropriate manual. For example,
Because this manual serves as a reference, it does not provide general instruction on SQL or relational database concepts. It also does not teach you how to use your operating system or command-line interpreter.
The MySQL Database Software is under constant development, and the Reference Manual is updated frequently as
well. The most recent version of the manual is available online in searchable form at
The Reference Manual source files are written in DocBook XML format. The HTML version and other formats are
produced automatically, primarily using the DocBook XSL stylesheets. For information about DocBook, see
If you have questions about using MySQL, you can ask them using our mailing lists or forums. See Section 1.6.1, "MySQL Mailing Lists", and Section 1.6.2, "MySQL Community Support at the MySQL Forums". If you have suggestions concerning additions or corrections to the manual itself, please send them to the http://www.mysql.com/company/contact/.
This manual was originally written by David Axmark and Michael "Monty" Widenius. It is maintained by the MySQL Documentation Team, consisting of Paul DuBois, Stefan Hinz, Philip Olson, John Russell, and Jon Stephens.