JavaTM 2 Platform
Std. Ed. v1.3.1

java.util
Interface Set

All Superinterfaces:
Collection
All Known Subinterfaces:
SortedSet
All Known Implementing Classes:
AbstractSet, HashSet

public interface Set
extends Collection

A collection that contains no duplicate elements. More formally, sets contain no pair of elements e1 and e2 such that e1.equals(e2), and at most one null element. As implied by its name, this interface models the mathematical set abstraction.

The Set interface places additional stipulations, beyond those inherited from the Collection interface, on the contracts of all constructors and on the contracts of the add, equals and hashCode methods. Declarations for other inherited methods are also included here for convenience. (The specifications accompanying these declarations have been tailored to the Set interface, but they do not contain any additional stipulations.)

The additional stipulation on constructors is, not surprisingly, that all constructors must create a set that contains no duplicate elements (as defined above).

Note: Great care must be exercised if mutable objects are used as set elements. The behavior of a set is not specified if the value of an object is changed in a manner that affects equals comparisons while the object is an element in the set. A special case of this prohibition is that it is not permissible for a set to contain itself as an element.

Since:
1.2
See Also:
Collection, List, SortedSet, HashSet, TreeSet, AbstractSet, Collections.singleton(java.lang.Object), Collections.EMPTY_SET

Method Summary
 boolean add(Object o)
          Adds the specified element to this set if it is not already present (optional operation).
 boolean addAll(Collection c)
          Adds all of the elements in the specified collection to this set if they're not already present (optional operation).
 void clear()
          Removes all of the elements from this set (optional operation).
 boolean contains(Object o)
          Returns true if this set contains the specified element.
 boolean containsAll(Collection c)
          Returns true if this set contains all of the elements of the specified collection.
 boolean equals(Object o)
          Compares the specified object with this set for equality.
 int hashCode()
          Returns the hash code value for this set.
 boolean isEmpty()
          Returns true if this set contains no elements.
 Iterator iterator()
          Returns an iterator over the elements in this set.
 boolean remove(Object o)
          Removes the specified element from this set if it is present (optional operation).
 boolean removeAll(Collection c)
          Removes from this set all of its elements that are contained in the specified collection (optional operation).
 boolean retainAll(Collection c)
          Retains only the elements in this set that are contained in the specified collection (optional operation).
 int size()
          Returns the number of elements in this set (its cardinality).
 Object[] toArray()
          Returns an array containing all of the elements in this set.
 Object[] toArray(Object[] a)
          Returns an array containing all of the elements in this set whose runtime type is that of the specified array.
 

Method Detail

size

public int size()
Returns the number of elements in this set (its cardinality). If this set contains more than Integer.MAX_VALUE elements, returns Integer.MAX_VALUE.
Specified by:
size in interface Collection
Returns:
the number of elements in this set (its cardinality).

isEmpty

public boolean isEmpty()
Returns true if this set contains no elements.
Specified by:
isEmpty in interface Collection
Returns:
true if this set contains no elements.

contains

public boolean contains(Object o)
Returns true if this set contains the specified element. More formally, returns true if and only if this set contains an element e such that (o==null ? e==null : o.equals(e)).
Specified by:
contains in interface Collection
Parameters:
o - element whose presence in this set is to be tested.
Returns:
true if this set contains the specified element.

iterator

public Iterator iterator()
Returns an iterator over the elements in this set. The elements are returned in no particular order (unless this set is an instance of some class that provides a guarantee).
Specified by:
iterator in interface Collection
Returns:
an iterator over the elements in this set.

toArray

public Object[] toArray()
Returns an array containing all of the elements in this set. Obeys the general contract of the Collection.toArray method.
Specified by:
toArray in interface Collection
Returns:
an array containing all of the elements in this set.

toArray

public Object[] toArray(Object[] a)
Returns an array containing all of the elements in this set whose runtime type is that of the specified array. Obeys the general contract of the Collection.toArray(Object[]) method.
Specified by:
toArray in interface Collection
Parameters:
a - the array into which the elements of this set are to be stored, if it is big enough; otherwise, a new array of the same runtime type is allocated for this purpose.
Returns:
an array containing the elements of this set.
Throws:
ArrayStoreException - the runtime type of a is not a supertype of the runtime type of every element in this set.

add

public boolean add(Object o)
Adds the specified element to this set if it is not already present (optional operation). More formally, adds the specified element, o, to this set if this set contains no element e such that (o==null ? e==null : o.equals(e)). If this set already contains the specified element, the call leaves this set unchanged and returns false. In combination with the restriction on constructors, this ensures that sets never contain duplicate elements.

The stipulation above does not imply that sets must accept all elements; sets may refuse to add any particular element, including null, and throwing an exception, as described in the specification for Collection.add. Individual set implementations should clearly document any restrictions on the the elements that they may contain.

Specified by:
add in interface Collection
Parameters:
o - element to be added to this set.
Returns:
true if this set did not already contain the specified element.
Throws:
UnsupportedOperationException - if the add method is not supported by this set.
ClassCastException - if the class of the specified element prevents it from being added to this set.
IllegalArgumentException - if some aspect of this element prevents it from being added to this set.

remove

public boolean remove(Object o)
Removes the specified element from this set if it is present (optional operation). More formally, removes an element e such that (o==null ? e==null : o.equals(e)), if the set contains such an element. Returns true if the set contained the specified element (or equivalently, if the set changed as a result of the call). (The set will not contain the specified element once the call returns.)
Specified by:
remove in interface Collection
Parameters:
o - object to be removed from this set, if present.
Returns:
true if the set contained the specified element.
Throws:
UnsupportedOperationException - if the remove method is not supported by this set.

containsAll

public boolean containsAll(Collection c)
Returns true if this set contains all of the elements of the specified collection. If the specified collection is also a set, this method returns true if it is a subset of this set.
Specified by:
containsAll in interface Collection
Parameters:
c - collection to be checked for containment in this set.
Returns:
true if this set contains all of the elements of the specified collection.

addAll

public boolean addAll(Collection c)
Adds all of the elements in the specified collection to this set if they're not already present (optional operation). If the specified collection is also a set, the addAll operation effectively modifies this set so that its value is the union of the two sets. The behavior of this operation is unspecified if the specified collection is modified while the operation is in progress.
Specified by:
addAll in interface Collection
Parameters:
c - collection whose elements are to be added to this set.
Returns:
true if this set changed as a result of the call.
Throws:
UnsupportedOperationException - if the addAll method is not supported by this set.
ClassCastException - if the class of some element of the specified collection prevents it from being added to this set.
IllegalArgumentException - if some aspect of some element of the specified collection prevents it from being added to this set.
See Also:
add(Object)

retainAll

public boolean retainAll(Collection c)
Retains only the elements in this set that are contained in the specified collection (optional operation). In other words, removes from this set all of its elements that are not contained in the specified collection. If the specified collection is also a set, this operation effectively modifies this set so that its value is the intersection of the two sets.
Specified by:
retainAll in interface Collection
Parameters:
c - collection that defines which elements this set will retain.
Returns:
true if this collection changed as a result of the call.
Throws:
UnsupportedOperationException - if the retainAll method is not supported by this Collection.
See Also:
remove(Object)

removeAll

public boolean removeAll(Collection c)
Removes from this set all of its elements that are contained in the specified collection (optional operation). If the specified collection is also a set, this operation effectively modifies this set so that its value is the asymmetric set difference of the two sets.
Specified by:
removeAll in interface Collection
Parameters:
c - collection that defines which elements will be removed from this set.
Returns:
true if this set changed as a result of the call.
Throws:
UnsupportedOperationException - if the removeAll method is not supported by this Collection.
See Also:
remove(Object)

clear

public void clear()
Removes all of the elements from this set (optional operation). This set will be empty after this call returns (unless it throws an exception).
Specified by:
clear in interface Collection
Throws:
UnsupportedOperationException - if the clear method is not supported by this set.

equals

public boolean equals(Object o)
Compares the specified object with this set for equality. Returns true if the specified object is also a set, the two sets have the same size, and every member of the specified set is contained in this set (or equivalently, every member of this set is contained in the specified set). This definition ensures that the equals method works properly across different implementations of the set interface.
Specified by:
equals in interface Collection
Overrides:
equals in class Object
Parameters:
o - Object to be compared for equality with this set.
Returns:
true if the specified Object is equal to this set.

hashCode

public int hashCode()
Returns the hash code value for this set. The hash code of a set is defined to be the sum of the hash codes of the elements in the set, where the hashcode of a null element is defined to be zero. This ensures that s1.equals(s2) implies that s1.hashCode()==s2.hashCode() for any two sets s1 and s2, as required by the general contract of the Object.hashCode method.
Specified by:
hashCode in interface Collection
Overrides:
hashCode in class Object
Returns:
the hash code value for this set.
See Also:
Object.hashCode(), Object.equals(Object), equals(Object)

JavaTM 2 Platform
Std. Ed. v1.3.1

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