mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.
mysql_upgrade should be executed each time you upgrade MySQL.
If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.11.4, "Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes" for manual table repair strategies.
On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as Administrator and running the command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute correctly.
You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, "Database Backup Methods".
Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before you upgrade your MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.11.1, "Upgrading MySQL", for instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and how to handle them.
To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running, and then invoke it like this:
After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any changes made to the system tables take effect.
mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and repair tables and to upgrade the system tables:
mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --auto-repairmysql <
fix_priv_tablesmysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --fix-db-names --fix-table-names
Notes about the preceding commands:
Because mysql_upgrade invokes mysqlcheck with the
--all-databases option, it processes all tables in all databases, which
might take a long time to complete. Each table is locked and therefore unavailable to other sessions
while it is being processed. Check and repair operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large
fix_priv_tables represents a script
generated internally by mysql_upgrade that contains SQL statements to
upgrade the tables in the
All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.
mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file
mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check
whether all tables have been checked for this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file
and perform the check regardless, use the
If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the server and client RPMs. mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM but requires the client RPM because the latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.5.1, "Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages".)
mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be
specified on the command line or in the
groups of an option file. Other options are passed to mysqlcheck. For example, it might be necessary to specify
--password[= option. mysql_upgrade also supports the options for processing
option files described at Section
220.127.116.11, "Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling".
|--basedir||basedir||Not used; exists only for compatibility with some very old applications||5.7.2|
|--character-sets-dir=path||character-sets-dir||Directory where character sets are.|
|--compress||compress||Use compression in server/client protocol.|
|--datadir=path||datadir||Not used; exists only for compatibility with some very old applications||5.7.2|
|--debug[=#]||debug||If this is a non-debug version, catch error and exit.|
|--debug-check||debug-check||--debug-check Check memory and open file usage at exit.|
|--default-auth=plugin||default-auth=plugin||The authentication plugin to use|
|--default-character-set=name||default-character-set||Set the default character set.|
|--force||force||Force execution even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current version of MySQL.|
|--help||help||Display a help message and exit|
|--host=name||host||Connect to host.|
|--password[=name]||password||Password to use when connecting to server. If password is not given it's solicited on the tty.|
|--plugin-dir=path||plugin-dir=path||The directory where plugins are located|
|--port=#||port||Port number to use for connection or 0 for default to, in order of preference, my.cnf, $MYSQL_TCP_PORT, /etc/services, built-in default (3306).|
|--protocol=name||protocol||The connection protocol (TCP=default, socket, pipe, memory)|
|--socket=name||socket||Socket file to use for connection.|
|--tmpdir=path||tmpdir||Directory for temporary files|
|--user=name||user||User for login if not current user.|
|--verbose||verbose||Show more information about the process|
|--version-check||version-check||Show more information about the process||5.7.2|
|--write-binlog||write-binlog||Enables binary logging of all commands including mysqlcheck.|
Display a short help message and exit.
The path to the MySQL installation directory. This option was removed in MySQL 5.7.2.
The path to the data directory. This option was removed in MySQL 5.7.2.
Print some debugging information when the program exits.
Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.
The client-side authentication plugin to use. See Section 6.3.7, "Pluggable Authentication".
The directory in which to look for plugins. It may be necessary to specify this option if the
option is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysql_upgrade does not find it. See Section 6.3.7, "Pluggable Authentication".
The path name of the directory to use for creating temporary files.
Upgrade only the system tables, do not upgrade data.
The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server. The default user name is
Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.
Check the version of the server to which mysql_upgrade is connecting to verify that it is the
same as the version for which mysql_upgrade was built. If not, mysql_upgrade exits. This option is enabled by
default; to disable the check, use
--skip-version-check. This option was
added in MySQL 5.7.2.
Binary logging by mysql_upgrade is disabled by default, and you must
invoke the program explicitly with
--write-binlog if you want its
actions to be written to the binary log.
Running mysql_upgrade is not recommended with a MySQL Server
that is running with global transaction identifiers enabled (Bug #13833710). This is because
enabling GTIDs means that any updates which mysql_upgrade might need to perform on system
tables using a nontransactional storage engine such as
MyISAM to fail. See Section
18.104.22.168, "Restrictions on Replication with GTIDs", for more information.