4.4.7. mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables

mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.

mysql_upgrade should be executed each time you upgrade MySQL.

If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.11.4, "Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes" for manual table repair strategies.


On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as Administrator and running the command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute correctly.


You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, "Database Backup Methods".

Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before you upgrade your MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.11.1, "Upgrading MySQL", for instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and how to handle them.

To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running, and then invoke it like this:

shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any changes made to the system tables take effect.

mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and repair tables and to upgrade the system tables:

mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --auto-repairmysql < fix_priv_tablesmysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --fix-db-names --fix-table-names

Notes about the preceding commands:

All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.

mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file named mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all tables have been checked for this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the check regardless, use the --force option.

If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the server and client RPMs. mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM but requires the client RPM because the latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.5.1, "Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages".)

mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.10, "Server-Side Help".

mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an option file. Other options are passed to mysqlcheck. For example, it might be necessary to specify the --password[=password] option. mysql_upgrade also supports the options for processing option files described at Section, "Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling".

Table 4.3. mysql_upgrade Options

Format Option File Description Introduced Removed
--basedir basedir Not used; exists only for compatibility with some very old applications 5.7.2
--character-sets-dir=path character-sets-dir Directory where character sets are.
--compress compress Use compression in server/client protocol.
--datadir=path datadir Not used; exists only for compatibility with some very old applications 5.7.2
--debug[=#] debug If this is a non-debug version, catch error and exit.
--debug-check debug-check --debug-check Check memory and open file usage at exit.
--default-auth=plugin default-auth=plugin The authentication plugin to use
--default-character-set=name default-character-set Set the default character set.
--force force Force execution even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current version of MySQL.
--help help Display a help message and exit
--host=name host Connect to host.
--password[=name] password Password to use when connecting to server. If password is not given it's solicited on the tty.
--plugin-dir=path plugin-dir=path The directory where plugins are located
--port=# port Port number to use for connection or 0 for default to, in order of preference, my.cnf, $MYSQL_TCP_PORT, /etc/services, built-in default (3306).
--protocol=name protocol The connection protocol (TCP=default, socket, pipe, memory)
--socket=name socket Socket file to use for connection.
--tmpdir=path tmpdir Directory for temporary files
--user=name user User for login if not current user.
--verbose verbose Show more information about the process
--version-check version-check Show more information about the process 5.7.2
--write-binlog write-binlog Enables binary logging of all commands including mysqlcheck.

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